Increased free malondialdehyde concentrations in smokers normalise with a mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrate: A pilot study.

Bamonti F, Novembrino C, Ippolito S, Soresi E, Ciani A, Lonati S, Scurati-Manzoni E, Cighetti G.; Jan. 2006


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of taking fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrates (FV) on several parameters of cardiovascular health, including homocysteine metabolism and oxidative status, in smokers and non-smokers.


This pilot study recruited 16 light smokers (10-12 cigarettes a day) and 16 non-smokers, aged 27 to 47 years, to take an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (Juice Plus+®) for 30 days while maintaining their current lifestyle habits. Researchers measured blood levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate using immunoenzymatic assays; reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and thiol groups by spectrophotometric methods; and total and free malondialdehyde (f-MDA) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Measurements were taken after an overnight fast at baseline and at 30 days.  


At the beginning of the study, the smokers had significantly higher free malondialdehyde levels than the non-smokers. After 30 days of taking FV twice daily, the smokers’ free malondialdehyde had fallen to levels comparable to those of the non-smokers. Their bound malondialdehyde levels increased, indicating free malondialdehyde was being bound and removed from the body through urine. The other cardiovascular biomarkers were unchanged for both smokers and non-smokers.  


“To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observational study carried out to evaluate the possible relationship between oxidative status, homocysteine status, tobacco smoking and juice powder concentrate supplementation. Above all, this is the first study to show a significant decrease in f-MDA levels in light smokers after just 1 month of daily phytonutrient supplementation”.

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